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End-Bit Management as a Wastage Reduction Technique

April 23, 2018 Ramandeep Kaur
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Garment manufacturing is a vast sector. One of the biggest challenges faced by the manufacturers is the optimum fabric consumption. Fabric accounts for almost 70% of a garment’s cost. Hence, reducing even 1% fabric wastage can lead to huge differences in the profit margins.

How can end bit management make a difference to your profits?

End-bits are pieces of fabric that are left after spreading a fabric roll. To understand more about the term, click here.

If not managed properly, these end-bits will keep on piling, hence leading to a higher cutting room wastage.

To understand further, let’s take an example of Factory ‘A’, and Factory ‘B’. Factory ‘B’ does end-bit planning, and Factory ‘A’ does not do end-bit management.

Wastage data for these factories are:


End-bit management and planning accounted for a difference of 1% in overall wastage between Factory ‘A’ and ‘B’. The fabric is considered wasted when it is not converted into a useful garment.

Let’s take the previous example to understand the impact of end-bit in terms of fabric cost:

Factory A is losing 4% more than Factory B, due to higher end-bit wastage.

Now that we have established the importance of end bit management, let’s dig deeper into finding the methods of proper end bit utilization.

Question 1: How can you manage your end bits?

End-bits are generated due to four main reasons:

  1. Roll End
  2. Shortage/Excess
  3. Sample cuts for testing
  4. Damages in the roll

Now, end-bit generation is inevitable, but end-bit management can be done at the cutting end.

There are different ways that can help a factory in end-bit management. A few of them are mentioned below:

  • Measurement and tagging of end-bits: When an end-bit is generated, it should be tagged to define its identity in terms of shade, shrinkage, width, length, and style. This practice will help in reducing the probability of mixing various fabric groups while laying.
  • Colour coded shade-wise stickers Allocating a color to every shade and putting it on the end-bits generated will help in reducing the searching time of end-bits of the same shade.:
  • Length-wise segregation of end-bits: End-bits generated should be kept length-wise in the racks, as it would be easier for the layer-person to identify the end-bits that can be used in the markers he has to lay.

Following all these practices will bring discipline to cutting floor. To ensure that these practices are followed on-floor, work allocation should be done accordingly.

But, end-bit management is the first step towards its reduction. The second step would be utilizing these end-bits, i.e., by converting these end-bits into useful garments.

Question 2: How can you plan end-bits?

To understand end-bit planning, let’s understand the following:

Total End-bits generated on-floor: all the end-bits that are greater than or equal to the BOM consumption.

End-bit planning becomes crucial when the end-bit quantity becomes difficult to handle on-floor.

End-bit planning should be done, when the Fabric Reuse Opportunity and balance quantity to cut becomes equal.

To do the end-bit planning, an account of total end-bits on-floor should be maintained with the planner. Also, end-bit planning based on the predicted end-bits will not give an efficient plan.

To cater to this problem, a system should be put on the cutting floor that would keep a live account of end-bits being generated on-floor.

IntelloCut is a software which gives a real-time account of actual end-bits being generated on-floor in terms of length and pieces. This information would help the planner in end-bit planning using the on-floor data captured by intelloCut.

Planning the order quantity based on the end-bits generated on-floor is beneficial in case of smaller order quantities, as the end-bits generated will be less. In case of larger order quantity, end-bits will keep piling.

To understand this, let’s take an example of an order with following lay-plan.

Let’s assume, that on an average, every lay gives 5-6 end bits. So, after completing 10 lays from the longest marker (M-1), there will be a total of 50-60 end-bits on-floor (see image below). Managing these end-bits can be difficult.

In this scenario, after completing 2-3 lays from the biggest marker, one short marker should be laid simultaneously using the end-bits generated from M-1, in this case. This will help in reducing the total end bits generated on-floor.

In this case, after cutting 3 lays from M-1(Longest marker), the end-bits generated should be used in the shorter marker, i.e., M-3.

This practice would help in an efficient end-bit utilization, reduced effort in sorting end-bits, and reduced wastage.

If we go into the business value of this technique, then it can show huge results in better utilization of fabric and hence the money spent instead of just wasting it.

Intellocut is a software that gives real-time data on the lays completed on-floor and the end-bits generated from the completed lays. This data can be extremely useful to help in managing and better planning of these end bits. 


Do you know of more ways to better manage end bits on-floor? Please share in the comment box below.

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